Until the late 1990s, urbanization in this region of Central Java revolved around its three major cities (Yogyakarta, Surakarta, and Semarang). Since the early 2000s, decentralization triggered the development of small centres through the allocation of financial resources to villages under the Kecamatan Development Programme. Further, after the Asian economic crisis of the late 1990s, the Government funded small- and medium-sized industries, accelerating the industrial reconversion of former rural areas. All this gave rise to the development of small cities. In 2010 the Joglosemar region was home to 11.6 million people. A network of 101 small cities of more than 10,0000 people lessened the importance of major cities and spurred on the development of the hinterland. In parallel, Borobudur district, home to the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Borobudur-Prambanan (and to 50,000 people, mainly living in villages scattered across an area of 54.5 km2), has undergone a process of tourism-driven development, as Indonesian civil society associations, endorsed by UNESCO, include the whole district in the definition of a cultural landscape surrounding the sanctuaries. The extension of heritage recognition from the sanctuaries to the district may prompt the redevelopment of the villages into a network of tourist destinations.